By-products of the processing of agricultural crops into oil are in demand no less than the main products. Husk, meal and especially cake are actively used in agriculture as an important component of a balanced diet for animals. Raw materials for the creation of oils, and, therefore, cake can be: sunflower; rape; corn; lint; peanut; hemp; pine nut; soy.
Compressed oilseeds are the most important ingredient in compound feeds. This is due to the significant percentage in the composition of fats and proteins - the necessary elements of a proper diet. Cake is a universal feed, it is suitable for cattle, fish and poultry.
Cake is formed during the creation of any vegetable oil, and it has its own distinctive features in each case:
Sunflower is traditionally of the greatest demand. Its recycled kernel residues are most useful at the lowest cost. An ideal balance of albuminous substances (30%) and fat (up to 10%), supplemented by a substantial protein content, is an excellent nutrition for any livestock. Thanks to its excellent aroma properties and pleasant taste, even an animal suffering from a poor appetite will gladly begin to consume such feed. It is important to choose the optimal composition - the less husk quantity, the higher the quality, and, consequently, the benefits for the farm enterprise.
Lint cake is more expensive due to labor-intensive processing technology. However, one kilogram will contain 87 g of digestible protein, which is highly absorbed due to its amino acids. After processing, fats similar to oil remain in the cake. In addition, lignins belonging to the class of phytoestrogens have a positive effect on the reproductive and cardiovascular systems of animals. The composition contains folic and omega-3 fatty acids, as well as calcium and phosphorus.
Soybean cake or oilcake contains the largest amount of albuminous substance - 45%, which is as close as possible to the animal one. Such feed is characterized by an affordable price and the presence of additional macronutrients in the composition: phosphorus, zinc, calcium, manganese and iron. The presence of soybeans in compound feed increases the fusability of the remaining components and an increase in milk yield or egg production by an average of 30%.
Cake from other types of oilseed crops is used to a lesser extent to obtain specific narrowly targeted results.
During the processing of vegetable raw materials for obtaining oil, the residual product receives unique properties that are several times higher than those inherent for the raw product. The protein component is converted into specific proteins - lysine, methionine, tryptophan and cysteine. The residual oil is saturated with a vitamin complex, phospholipids and other macronutrients different for each type of cake. Any residual product always contains:
- water - up to 10%;
- proteins - up to 40%, least of all in corn cake;
- fats - up to 9.5%, peanut cake - 3.6%;
- fiber - depending on the percentage of the seed shell - max. 25%, min. 4%.
It is important to observe the correct dosage of cake in the diet, depending on its type and age. Since the harm from malpractice can significantly exceed the main benefit. Taking into account the total nutritional value of feed for cattle, it is better to add 40% and 45% cake for young and adult animals, respectively.
The lowest probability of pathogenic effects is shown by sunflower products, they are the most resistant to damage by microtoxins. At a verified approach, the use of oil cake reduces the mortality of livestock and has a positive effect on the following processes:
- increase in live weight and measurements of young stock during feeding;
- milk yield and elemental composition of milk;
- digestive processes;
- chemical reactions of metabolism and maintenance of immunity.
The cake versatility also lies in the fact that it can be fed both dry and wet, and most often in mixtures. At the same time, it is important to properly store the product in order to avoid rot and mold. Bitterness in the taste is also unacceptable. It is best to use bags and organize a warehouse in a dry, not warm room, where the sun rays will not fall on the cake.
Based on the materials of gelznt.ru